The Principals of Manufacturing Custom Circuit Boards

In the field of electronics printed circuit boards also known as PCBs, are used to support electronic components by mechanically supporting them with their connector leads soldered to copper pads for surface mount applications, or through rilled holes on the board as well as copper pads to solder components’ leads for through-hole use. The design of a PCB may include all through-hole components on the bottom or the component side, a mixture of surface mount and through-hole components on the top and bottom sides only and a mixture of surface mount and through-hole elements on the upper with surface mount on the lower side, or circuit side or surface mount components on both edges of the boards.

The boards can also be utilized to connect electrically the necessary leads to every component with copper traces that are conductive. The components pads and connection traces are created from copper sheets and then laminated on non-conductive substrates. Custom Circuit Boards with printing are constructed in single-sided designs featuring copper pads, and trace lines on one side only and double sided featuring copper pads as well as traces on both the side facing the bottom and top or multilayer designs using copper pads and traces at the both sides of the board, with a variety of copper layers inside with connections and trace lines.

Single or double-sided boards are constructed from a dielectric material, like the FR-4 epoxy fiber, which has copper plating on either one side or the other. The copper plating is then removed to create the actual copper pads as well as the connection trace lines on the surface of the board in the course of the manufacturing process of the board. A multilayer board is made up of multiple dielectric layers that have been impregnated by adhesives. These layer are utilized to break up the copper plating layers. Each layer is connected to form an uni-board structure with pressure and heat. Multilayer boards that have at least 48 layers are able to be manufactured using modern technology.

In a typical four-layer design, the internal layers typically serve for ground and power connections, like an +5V plane layer as well as the Ground plane layer, which are the two layers within and all other components and circuit connections being made on the bottom and top levels of the panel. The most complex designs of boards may contain a number of layers that make numerous connections needed for various types of voltages, grounded connections or to connect the numerous leads in balls grid arrays, and other big integrated circuit packaging formats.

There are generally two types of materials used to make an multilayer panel. Pre-preg is a thin layer of fiberglass that have been pre-impregnated by an adhesive. It is in the form of sheets, typically around .002 inches in thickness. Core material is similar in structure to a thin double-sided board because it contains dielectric materials, like epoxy fiberglass, with a copper coating on each side, generally .030 in thickness. It is a dielectric substance that has 1 ounce of copper on both sides. In a multilayer design there are two ways employed to construct the desired amount of layers. The primary stack-up technique that is an older technique is based on a core layer of pre-preg materials with the core material layer above and a second one of the material underneath. The mix of one of the pre-preg layers as well as two layers of core material would create an a 4-layer board. Get more info about China Printed Circuit Board Assembly Services, Visit here:

The method of stacking films is a more recent technology that could use the core material in the middle layer, which is followed by layers of pre-preg as well as copper material that are built over and below to create the final layer needed by the design similar to Dagwood creating the sandwich. This approach allows the designer flexibility when it comes to how the layers are constructed to meet the final specifications in terms of thickness. This is done by changing the amount of pre-preg that are included in each layer. After the layers of material are finished and the stack is heated and pressure, which results in the adhesive used in the pre-preg layer to join the pre-preg and core layers together to form a single piece.