Molecular biologists have currently started using a unique tool known as viral vectors so as to deliver genetic material into cells of human body. Either viral vector is performed inside the body of an organic system or through cell culture. This is because viruses over the millions of years have become specialized to transport their genomes into the cells that they have aimed to infect. When the delivery of such genes are done it is known as transduction and the scientists have begun to use this natural technique with some modification to transport genes to cure human of host of diseases and other life –threatening illness.
Presently, the molecular biologists and therapists have modified viruses in such a way that even from those created from pathogenic viruses there is low risk factor involved. This gives patients hope of recovering from cancers and other major diseases. You have nowadays got Lentivirus transduction done as explained here at https://www.genemedi.net/i/lentivirus-packaging
Applying Tailored Viral Vectors
Microbiologists apply tailored viral vectors so that they do the job without harming the cell in any other way. They do this by deleting the vital part of the cell that is important for the replication of virus. Here, the proteins and not found and therefore the virus that infects cannot start production of newer viruses. They can only do this with the help of yet another virus or helper virus so as to get the deleted proteins back.
Again, it is seen that in these instants the cell do not change their structure or physiological characteristics which is what the therapists would want in order to give treatment to the patients affected by diseases. Here, the cells have minimal effect and nowadays the scientists design the viral vector so that they do not become genetically unstable.
It is also seen that sometimes the viral receptor has to be modified so as to target the virus on to a specific type of cell. Again, cells have also to be studied and viral vectors are studied by microbiologists by transferring certain genes so as to identify as to which of the cells have become infected. Currently, Lentivirus vector system is more in vogue with therapists as it has many distinct advantages.
It must be noted that a lentivirus is a retrovirus and has a single RNA genome unlike Adenovirus vector which has double stranded DNA genome. It is also seen that lentivirus has a viral envelope with protruding glycoprotein. The same helps the lentivirus to attach itself to the host cell. As soon as it enters the cell the lentivirus transduction in the form of passing out viral genetic materials occur. After a multi-step process that involves the lentivirus to attach to host cells membrane, the viral material is then injected into the cytoplasm of the host cell.
Thereafter the viral RNA genome creates a viral DNA genome. This viral DNA is eventually taken to the nucleus of the host cell and is successfully incorporated into host’s genome. This is called Lentivirus transduction and is perhaps one of the best forms of treatment for life threatening disease including HIV. The vector which in now known as provirus remains inside the host cell’s genome and is passed on to the offspring as and when the cell divides. It is seen that there is a little risk involved in lentivirus production as microbiologists often state. This is because it activates the genes promoting cancers. However, it has been also seen that lentivirus in this form is mild and this is especially so when it tries to integrate with cancer causing cells. In fact, it stops there or refuses to fuse thus making it superior to other form of therapies available.
As is seen lentivirus can infect cells that are dividing or non-dividing. In other words, cells like neurons do not divide in adult humans and hence the lentivirus therapy has been seen to be quite promising. Diseases like Diabetes, prostate cancer, vascular diseases and others have been successfully implemented through this process. This is mainly because lentivirus can be easily manipulated and made to do in ways so as to alter the course of the above diseases. Currently, this kind of Lentivirus vector system has been extended to other life-threatening diseases as well and with great success too.